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Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar, una enfermedad rara, silenciosa y mortal

20 febrero, 2020
Gaby Reyes Rivera
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La Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar es una enfermedad grave, hasta cierto punto invisible ya que se detecta cuando ya está avanzada debido a que a veces se confunde con otras enfermedades diferentes. Es una enfermedad rara e incapacitante. El HAP es la presión alta de las arterias de los pulmones que también afectan al corazón del lado derecho esto significa que la sangre no pasa bien por los pulmones y hace que las arterias se bloqueen, destruyan o se estrechan debido a que la presión eleva las arterias pulmonares y debido a eso el corazón del lado derecho debe trabajar más para que pueda bombear sangre a los pulmones además el corazón empieza a crecer de más.

La Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar no es curable y puede llegar a ser mortal, es una enfermedad crónica y progresiva. Algunos tipos de hipertensión pulmonar tienen tratamiento lo cual hace que el paciente tenga una mejor calidad de vida.

Normalmente el HAP se descubre en una etapa un poco tarde ya que la confunden mucho e inclusive pueden pasar meses o años antes de dar con el diagnóstico correcto. Debido a eso es importante acudir con diferentes doctores o neumologos para que den con este mal ya que es catastrófica y una de las enfermedades más caras que hay por los aparatos y medicamentos que no son fáciles de conseguir.

Síntomas de la HAP

Les voy a platicar sobre algunos síntomas que hay en esta enfermedad rara e incapacitante.

  • Dificultad para respirar
  • Presión o dolor en el pecho
  • Mareos y/o desmayos
  • Fatiga sea caminando o en reposo
  • Edema (Inflamación) en tobillos, piernas y en abdomen.
  • Labios azules y también en diferentes partes de tu piel
  • Latidos rápidos en tu corazón

Tipos de Hipertensión Pulmonar

La Hipertensión Pulmonar está clasificado en cinco grupos:

Grupo 1 : Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar

  • Es cuando es desconocida la causa y la llaman hipertensión arterial pulmonar idiopática.
  • La segunda causa es porque los pacientes tomaron pastillas o medicamentos dietéticos para bajar de peso.
  • La tercera causa es una enfermedad cardiaca de nacimiento
  • La cuarta puede ser por herencia llamada Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar hereditaria
  • Y esta que puede ser por otras enfermedades como el Lupus, VIH, esclerodermia o enfermedades hepáticas.

Grupo 2 : Hipertensión Pulmonar originada por una enfermedad cardiaca del lado izquierdo.

  • Enfermedad de la válvula aortica o mitral
  • Insuficiencia del ventrículo izquierdo del corazón

Grupo 3 : Hipertensión pulmonar originada por una enfermedad pulmonar

  • EPOC, Enfisema Pulmonar
  • SAOS o Apnea del sueño o trastornos del sueño
  • Fibrosis Pulmonar o una enfermedad de los pulmones donde hay cicatrización en los sacos de aire de los pulmones.

Grupo 4 : Hipertensión Pulmonar por coágulos sanguíneos.

  • Tromboembólica crónica

Grupo 5 : Hipertensión Pulmonar debido a diferentes motivos o causas

  • Problemas de sangre
  • Tumores que empujan las arterias pulmonares

La hipertensión Pulmonar puede tener varias complicaciones si tienes otras enfermedades. Normalmente esta enfermedad se trata con oxigenoterapia y algunos medicamentos y diuréticos según qué tipo de hipertensión tengas. Algunos casos del tipo 4 si son curables.

Es importante tener en cuenta que cuando te diagnostican esta enfermedad crónica y mortal debes hacerle caso al médico de todo lo que te diga bajar de peso, no fumar , comer saludable etc

Cuando tienes esta enfermedad te puede suceder que se te dificulte subir escaleras, caminar una o dos cuadras, sentir que te ahogas o que no puedes respirar bien. Estos síntomas pueden aparecer y desaparecer y también tener días buenos y a veces días malos.

Tienes que hacerte a la idea que en cuanto la enfermedad comienza a progresar debes hacer ciertos cambios en tu casa para que tengas algunas cosas más cerca, puedes bañarte usando el oxígeno siempre y cuando sólo se meta la manguera. A medida que va avanzando esta enfermedad necesitaremos cuidado personal, hacer movimientos más lentos, te recomiendo tener el teléfono o celular cerca de ti, cuando cocines o te vistas siéntate así estarás mejor y algo muy importante es que no haya estrés en tu vida, debes estar tranquila.

Algo muy importante que quiero aconsejarles es que mientras caminen no hablen porque se les va el aire. Las personas que tienen este padecimiento deben aprender a sobrellevar esta enfermedad que al principio te tiene en urgencias cada cierto tiempo pero que si te cuidas esto puede variar. Es importante que uses concentrador de oxígeno para casa ya que te va a durar más que el tanque y es menos peligroso.

Si por alguna causa tienen esta enfermedad debo decirles que no están solos existen grupos de apoyo tanto en Facebook como Whatsapp donde te van a comentar mis amigas nuestras experiencias y cómo fue para nosotras el comienzo de la enfermedad.

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